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Types
  Bladder/Urethral Cancer
  Brain Cancer
  Breast Cancer
  Cervical Cancer
  Colon/Rectal Cancer reports?
  Hodgkin's Disease
  Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma
  Leukemia
  Liver Cancer
  Lung Cancer
   
 
  Myeloma
  Head,Oral and Neck Cancer
  Ovarian Cancer
  Pancreatic Cancer
  Prostate Cancer
  Renal Cancer
  Skin/Melanoma
  Skin/Non-melanoma
  Stomach/Gastric Cancer
  Endometrial/Uterine Cancer
   
Bladder/Urethral Cancer
Bladder cancer begins in the bladder, the organ that stores urine. Because the kidneys, ureters, and urethra are lined with cells similar to those in the bladder, cancer that affects the bladder can affect these structures as well.

While there are other, rare types of bladder cancer, the three most common types are: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), Squamous cell carcinomas, and Adenocarcinomas. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is by far the most common form of bladder cancer, accounting for about 90% of these cancers. Bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in this country, and it is three times more common among men than among women. When found and treated early, as often happens, the chances for survival are very good.

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Brain Cancer
The brain consists of different kinds of tissues and cells. This is important to understand, because different types of benign (not cancerous) and malignant (cancerous) tumors can start in these different cell and tissue types. These different types of tumors vary in prognosis (survival) and the ways they are treated.

Any of the different types of tissues or cells within the brain or spinal cord can become cancerous. Tumors that start in other organs such as the lung or breast and then spread, or metastasize, to the brain are called metastatic brain cancers and those that start in the brain are called primary brain cancers. Metastatic tumors to the brain are more common than primary brain tumors. Unlike other cancers, tumors arising within the brain or spinal cord rarely metastasize to distant organs. They cause damage because they spread locally and destroy normal tissue in the place where they arise

Brain cancer accounts for approximately 1.4% of all cancers and 2.3% of all cancer-related deaths.
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Breast Cancer
Breast cancer begins in the breast tissue and is most commonly associated with women, although on rare occasion, men also get breast cancer.

There are several types of breast tumors. Most are benign; that is, they are not cancer. These lumps are often the result of fibrocystic changes, which can cause breast swelling and pain. Cysts are fluid-filled sacs, and fibrosis refers to connective tissue or scar tissue formation. The breasts may feel lumpy and sometimes there is a clear or slightly cloudy nipple discharge. Benign breast tumors are abnormal growths, but they do not spread outside of the breast and they are not life threatening. Four of the most common types of breast cancer are Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), Infiltrating (invasive) lobular carcinoma (ILC), and Infiltrating (invasive) ductal carcinoma (IDC). IDC is the most common type of breast cancer; it accounts for nearly 80% of breast cancer.

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, other than skin cancer. It is the second leading cause of cancer death in women, after lung cancer. Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women aged 40 to 55.
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Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer begins in the lining of the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the womb (uterus) and it connects the body of the uterus to the vagina, or birth canal.

Cancer of the cervix does not form suddenly. First, some cells begin to change from normal to pre-cancer and then to cancer. This can take a number of years, although sometimes it happens more quickly. For some women, pre-cancerous changes may go away without any treatment. More often, they need to be treated to keep them from changing into true cancers.

There are two main types of cancer of the cervix. About 85%-90% of these cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. The other 10%-15% are adenocarcinomas.

When found and treated early, cervical cancer often can be cured. Cervical cancer used to be one of the most common causes of cancer death for American women. But between 1955 and 1992 the number of deaths from cervical cancer declined by 74%. The main reason for this change is the use of the Pap test to find early cancer.
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Colon/Rectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer begins in either the colon or the rectum. Both are part of the digestive tract, sometimes called the GI (gastrointestinal) tract. This is where food is processed to create energy and rid the body of waste matter.
The colon has four sections: the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon. Cancer can start in any of the four sections or in the rectum. Since colon cancer and rectal cancer have many features in common, they are often discussed together.

Before a true cancer develops, there are often earlier changes in the lining of the colon or rectum. One type of change is a growth of tissue called a polyp. Removing the polyp early may prevent it from becoming cancer

Over 95% of colon and rectal (colorectal) cancers are adenocarcinomas. These are cancers of the cells that line the inside of the colon and rectum. There are some other, more rare, types of tumors of the colon and rectum.

The death rate from colorectal cancer has been going down for the past 20 years. This may be because there are fewer cases, because more of the cases are found early, and also because treatments have improved.
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Hodgkin's Disease
Hodgkin's disease, sometimes called Hodgkin's lymphoma, is a cancer that starts in lymphatic tissue. Lymphatic tissue includes the lymph nodes and related organs that are part of the body's immune and blood-forming systems. Lymph nodes make and store infection-fighting white blood cells, called lymphocytes. They are connected throughout the body by lymph vessels (narrow tubes similar to blood vessels). Other components of the lymphatic system include the spleen, the bone marrow, and the thymus.

Because lymphatic tissue is present in many parts of the body, Hodgkin's disease can start almost anywhere. This cancer causes enlargement of the lymphatic tissue that can then cause pressure on important structures.

Hodgkin's disease is a type of malignant lymphoma (cancer of lymphatic tissue). Lymphomas are divided into two general types: Hodgkin's disease (named after Dr. Thomas Hodgkin who first recognized it in 1832) and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The cancer cells in Hodgkin's disease look different under a microscope from cells of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and other cancers. Doctors have given names to different types of Hodgkin's disease: lymphocyte predominance, nodular sclerosis, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte depletion, and unclassified. All of these types are malignant because as they grow, they may compress, invade, destroy normal tissue and spread to other tissues. There is no benign (noncancerous) form of Hodgkin's disease
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Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma
Hodgkin's disease, sometimes called Hodgkin's lymphoma, is a cancer that starts in lymphatic tissue. Lymphatic tissue includes the lymph nodes and related organs that are part of the body's immune and blood-forming systems. Lymph nodes make and store infection-fighting white blood cells, called lymphocytes. They are connected throughout the body by lymph vessels (narrow tubes similar to blood vessels). Other components of the lymphatic system include the spleen, the bone marrow, and the thymus.

Because lymphatic tissue is present in many parts of the body, Hodgkin's disease can start almost anywhere. This cancer causes enlargement of the lymphatic tissue that can then cause pressure on important structures.

Hodgkin's disease is a type of malignant lymphoma (cancer of lymphatic tissue). Lymphomas are divided into two general types: Hodgkin's disease (named after Dr. Thomas Hodgkin who first recognized it in 1832) and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The cancer cells in Hodgkin's disease look different under a microscope from cells of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and other cancers. Doctors have given names to different types of Hodgkin's disease: lymphocyte predominance, nodular sclerosis, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte depletion, and unclassified. All of these types are malignant because as they grow, they may compress, invade, destroy normal tissue and spread to other tissues. There is no benign (noncancerous) form of Hodgkin's disease.
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Leukemia
Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. This cancer starts in the bone marrow but can then spread to the blood, lymph nodes, the spleen, liver, central nervous system and other organs. In contrast, other types of cancer can start in these organs and then spread to the bone marrow (or elsewhere). Those cancers are not leukemia. Both children and adults can develop leukemia.

Leukemia is a complex disease with many different types and sub-types. The kind of treatment given and the outlook for the person with leukemia vary greatly according to the exact type and other, individual factors.

There are four major types of leukemia:
  • acute vs. chronic
    lymphocytic vs. myelogenous
  • Acute means rapidly growing. Although the cells grow rapidly, they are not able to mature properly.
  • Chronic refers to a condition where the cells look mature but they are not completely normal. The cells live too long and cause a build-up of certain kinds of white blood cells.
  • Lymphocytic and myelogenous (or myeloid) refer to the two different cell types from which leukemias start. Lymphocytic leukemias develop from lymphocytes in the bone marrow. Myelogenous leukemia (sometimes referred to as myelocytic) develops from either of two types of white blood cells: granulocytes or monocytes.By looking at whether a leukemia is acute or chronic and myelogenous or lymphocytic, most cases of leukemia can be sorted into one of the four main types shown in the table below. And, while both children and adults can develop leukemia, certain types are more common in one age group than in another.
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Liver Cancer
Liver cancer begins in the liver, the largest organ in the body. The liver performs many crucial body functions, including:
  • stores vitamins and nutrients until they are needed
  • chemically changes (metabolizes) nutrients so they can be used by the body
  • produces a blood protein (albumin) needed for proper fluid balance in the body
  • makes clotting factors to plug up damaged blood vessels
  • rids the body of poisonous (toxic) drugs and chemicals
  • There are a number of tumors that can form in the liver. Some of these are cancerous and others are not. The four main types of malignant liver tumors are:
Angiosarcoma: a rare cancer that starts in the blood vessels of the liver Cholangiocarcinoma: accounts for about 13% of liver cancers. This tumor begins in the small bile ducts in the liver. It is also known as Klatskin tumors. Hepatoblastoma: a rare type of liver cancer found most often in young children. It can often be treated successfully. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Accounts for about 84% of liver cancers. It begins in the hepatocytes, the main type of liver cell.
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Lung Cancer
Lung cancer begins in the lungs. The lungs are two sponge-like organs in the chest. The lining that surrounds the lungs is called the pleura. The pleura helps to protect the lungs. The windpipe (trachea) brings air down into the lungs. It divides into tubes called bronchi, which divide into smaller branches called bronchioles. At the end of these small branches are tiny air sacs known as alveoli.

Most lung cancers start in the lining of the bronchi. But lung cancer can also begin in other areas like the trachea, bronchioles, or alveoli. Lung cancer often takes many years to develop.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for both men and women. Lung cancer is fairly rare in people under the age of 40. The number of cases goes up after age 50 and even more so after age 65.

Smoking is by far the leading cause of lung cancer. Up to 90% of lung cancer is caused by smoking. Cells in the lungs of smokers go through changes that can lead to lung cancer. The longer a person has been smoking, and the more packs per day smoked, the greater the risk. Of course, not every smoker gets lung cancer, but quitting smoking, at any age, greatly lowers the chance of getting lung cancer.
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Myeloma
Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer formed by malignant plasma cells. Normal plasma cells are an important part of the immune system.

The immune system is composed of several types of cells that work together to fight off infections and other diseases. Lymphocytes (lymph cells) are the main cell type of the immune system. There are two types of lymphocytes: T-cells and B-cells. When B-cells respond to an infection, they mature and change into plasma cells.

When plasma cells grow out of control they can produce a tumor. These tumors can grow in several sites, particularly in the soft middle parts of bone called the bone marrow. When these tumors grow in multiple sites they are referred to as multiple myeloma.

The large growths of plasma cells can damage the normal blood-forming functions of the bone marrow. This can result in a shortage of red blood cells called anemia leading to fatigue, and a shortage of blood platelets (clotting cells) leading to excessive bleeding after cuts or scrapes. This can also result in a shortage of normal or "good" white blood cells called leukopenia, leading to decreased resistance to infections.

Multiple myeloma is not the only disease involving excessive plasma cell growth. There is also Solitary Plasmacytomas, which produces only one tumor (rather than multiple tumors as in multiple myeloma). Solitary plasmacytomas can develop in bone marrow or in tissues other than bone marrow. These tumors are treated by radiation therapy and/or sometimes with surgery. Their prognosis (survival outlook) is usually excellent if no other plasmacytomas are found; however, some of these patients may eventually develop multiple myelomas.
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Head, Oral and Neck Cancer
Oral cancer is cancer that starts in the oral cavity (mouth). The oral cavity starts at the skin edge of the lips. It includes the lips, the buccal mucosa (inside lining of the lips and cheeks), the teeth, the gums, the front two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth below the tongue, the hard palate (bony roof of the mouth), and the retromolar trigone (area behind the wisdom teeth).

Oropharyngeal cancer develops in the oropharynx (the part of the throat just behind the mouth). The oropharynx begins where the oral cavity stops. It includes the base of tongue (back third of the tongue), the soft palate, the tonsillar area (tonsils and tonsillar pillars), and the posterior pharyngeal wall (back wall of the throat).

Many types of tumors can develop in the oral cavity and oropharynx. Some of these tumors are benign, or noncancerous. They do not invade other tissues and do not spread to other parts of the body. Others are cancerous, which means they can penetrate into surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. There are also some growths that start off harmless, but sometimes develop into cancer. These are known as precancerous conditions.
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Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian cancer starts in a woman's ovaries, which are in the pelvis. The ovaries contain eggs. There is one ovary on each side of the spine. The ovaries are the main source of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone.

There are three main types of ovarian tumors. They are named for the kind of cells they start from. The most common starts from the cells that cover the surface of the ovary, called the epithelial cells. Most epithelial ovarian tumors are harmless, but some are cancerous. Most ovarian cancers are the epithelial type.

The second kind of tumor starts in the germ cells that form the eggs in the ovary. As used here, the word germ refers to an early or seed cell. Most germ cell tumors are also benign, although some are ca
ncerous. Germ cell cancers account for about 5% of ovarian cancers.

The third type of tumor starts from the tissue that holds an ovary together and produces female hormones, the stromal cells. Stromal tumors are fairly rare, accounting for only about 5% of ovarian tumors.
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Pancreatic Cancer
Think of the pancreas as two separate glands found inside the same organ. Over 95% of the cells in the pancreas form exocrine glands and ducts. A small percentage of the cells in the pancreas are endocrine cells.

Exocrine cells of the pancreas can form benign tumors, although they are much more likely to form cancers. About 95% of cancers of the exocrine pancreas are adenocarcinomas. Less common cancers of the exocrine pancreas include adenosquamous carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and giant cell carcinomas. Treatment of an exocrine pancreatic cancer is mostly based on how far it metastasized, however, and not its exact type.

Tumors of the endocrine pancreas are much less common. As a group, they are known as neuroendocrine tumors, or more specifically, islet cell tumors. There are several subtypes of islet cell tumors that are named according to the type of hormone they produce. Most islet cell tumors are benign.

It is very important to distinguish exocrine and endocrine cancers of the pancreas from one another. Each type of tumor has distinct risk factors and causes; produces different signs and symptoms; are diagnosed using different tests, are treated in different ways, and have a different prognosis (outlook for survival).
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Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer starts in the prostate gland. The prostate gland is found only in men; therefore, only men get prostate cancer. The prostate is about the size of a walnut. It is just below the bladder and in front of the rectum. The tube that carries urine (urethra) runs through the prostate.

Most of the time, prostate cancer grows very slowly. Autopsy studies show that many elderly men who died of other diseases also had prostate cancer that neither they nor their doctor were aware of. But sometimes it can grow quickly, spreading to other parts of the body. Cancer cells may enter the lymph system and spread to lymph nodes (small, bean-shaped collections of cells that help in fighting infections). If cancer is in the lymph nodes, it is more likely to have spread to other organs of the body as well.

Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer found in American men, other than skin cancer. Although men of any age can get prostate cancer, it is found most often in men over 50. In fact, more than 8 out of ten of the men with prostate cancer are over the age of 65.
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Renal Cancer
Kidney cancer begins in the kidneys, two large, bean-shaped organs. One is just to the left and the other to the right of the backbone.

The main job of the kidneys is to filter the blood and rid the body of liquid waste. This waste, called urine, leaves the kidneys through a long slender tube called a ureter. The ureters connect to the bladder, where the urine is stored until it leaves the body.

Although we have two kidneys, it is possible to survive with less than even one complete kidney. Some people live without any kidneys at all. Their blood is filtered by a machine in a process called dialysis.

Renal is the Latin word for kidney. The most common type of kidney cancer is called renal cell cancer. It accounts for about 85% of kidney tumors.
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Skin/Melanoma
Skin cancers are divided into two general types - melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the melanocytes, the cells that produce the skin coloring or pigment known as melanin. Other names for this cancer include malignant melanoma, melanoma skin cancer, and cutaneous melanoma. Because most melanoma cells still produce melanin, melanoma tumors are often brown or black.

Melanoma is much less common than basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers, but it is far more serious.

Melanoma, like basal cell and squamous cell cancers, is almost always curable in its early stages. However, melanoma is much more likely than basal or squamous cell cancer to metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Cancer of the skin is the most common of all cancers. Melanoma accounts for about 4% of skin cancer cases, but causes about 79% of skin cancer deaths.
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Skin/Non-melanoma
There are two major groups of skin cancers: malignant melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancers are the most common cancers of the skin, and the two types that are most common are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

Basal cell carcinoma begins in the lowest layer of the epidermis, the basal cell layer. About 75% of all skin cancers are basal cell carcinomas. They usually begin on areas exposed to the sun such as the head and neck. Basal cell carcinoma is slow growing. It is highly unusual for a basal cell cancer to spread to distant parts of the body. After treatment, basal cell carcinoma can come back (recur) in the same place on the skin or can start elsewhere on the skin.

Squamous cell carcinomas begin in the upper part of the epidermis and account for about 20% of all skin cancers. They usually appear on sun-exposed areas of the body such as the face, ear, neck, lips, and backs of the hands. They can also begin within scars or skin ulcers elsewhere on the body. Squamous cell carcinomas are more likely to invade tissues beneath the skin, and slightly more likely to spread to distant parts of the body than are basal cell carcinomas. Even so, very few squamous cell skin carcinomas spread to lymph nodes and/or other organs.

Cancer of the skin (including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer) is the most common of all cancers. It accounts for nearly half of all cancers.
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Stomach/Gastric Cancer
Stomach cancer is a cancer that starts in the stomach. The medical name for stomach cancer is gastric cancer. The stomach is divided into five different sections. Cancer can develop in any of these sections. Cancers beginning in these different sections may produce different symptoms and tend to have different outcomes. The location can also affect some of the treatment options that are available.

Stomach cancers are believed to develop slowly over many years. Before a true cancer develops, there are usually precancerous changes that occur in the lining of the stomach. These early changes rarely produce symptoms and therefore often go undetected. If left untreated, stomach cancers can spread by several different means. They can grow through the wall of the stomach and involve the nearby organs. They can also spread through the bloodstream or lymph system to form distant colonies of cancer called metastasis.

Approximately 90% to 95% of the malignant (cancerous) tumors of the stomach are adenocarcinomas. The terms stomach cancer or gastric cancer almost always refer to adenocarcinoma of the stomach. This cancer develops from the cells that form the inner lining of the stomach called the epithelium.

Most people diagnosed with stomach cancer are in their 60s and 70s.
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Endometrial/Uterine Cancer
Endometrial cancer is a cancer that has developed from the endometrium, which is the inner lining of the uterus (womb).
Nearly all endometrial cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers of glandular cells). In addition, over 75% of these are endometrioid adenocarcinomas. Although "endometrial" and "endometrioid" have similar spelling, they are not identical. Endometrioid cancers are a specific type of endometrial cancer. One-third to one-half of endometrioid cancers have glandular areas as well as areas formed by squamous cells (the type of cells found on the surface of the cervix and the skin). If the squamous cells look benign (noncancerous) under a microscope, and the glandular cells look cancerous these tumors are called adenoacanthomas. If the squamous areas and glandular areas both look malignant (cancerous), these tumors are called adenosquamous carcinomas. However, both adenocanthomas and adenosquamous carcinomas are cancerous tumors.

Papillary serous adenocarcinomas (about 10% of endometrial cancers) and clear cell adenocarcinoma (less than 5%) are less common types of endometrial cancer which often grow and spread rapidly. The above cancers of the endometrium form in the lining layer, or epithelium, of the uterus. Three less common uterine cancers that are also called uterine sarcomas can involve the endometrium. These include (1) stromal sarcomas which develop in the stroma (supporting connective tissue) of the endometrium, (2) malignant mixed mesodermal tumors (MMMT, or carcinosarcomas) which may combine features of endometrial carcinoma and those of sarcomas, and (3) leiomyosarcomas which start in the muscular wall of the uterus.

In the United States, cancer of the endometrium is the most common cancer of the female reproductive organs.
 
Source: American Cancer Society.
 
 
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